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So Krishna has explained this material world, bhümir äpaù analo väyuù. Now, this is also nature, prakriti. There is another nature, prakriti. Prakriti means stré-liìga, woman. Jéva-bhüta, the living entities, are not mentioned in this connection as purna. Not purna. The Mäyävädé philosophers, they think themselves as purna. The karmés also, they think they are purna. Purna means enjoyer, and prakriti means enjoyed. But Krishna does not say that the living entity is purna. He says prakriti. Prakriti is always subordinate to the purna. That is the natural way.
In the Manu-samhita it is said that prakriti, or stré, never deserve to be independent. Na stré svätantryam arhati. So as soon as the living entity is accepted as prakriti, then it is to be understood that she is under the control of the supreme purna, Purusottama. Krishna is Purusottama. And Krishna has been accepted as the purna by Arjuna. Paraà brahma paraà dhäma pavitraà paramaà bhavän, purnaà çäçvatam [Bg. 10.12]. It is not that Krishna has become purna now, and before that He was impersonal. No. Krishna is purnaà çäçvatam, eternally He is purna, eternally He is enjoyer. He's never enjoyed. You cannot enjoy Krishna, or God, for your sense gratification. That is not possible. He can use you for His sense gratification. That is bhakti-märga. The bhaktas, they never claim to be purna. They are always subordinate. Mama janmani janmanéçvare bhavatäd bhaktir ahaituké tvayi [Cc. Antya 20.29, Çikñäñöaka 4]. This is bhakti-yoga.
So this material energy is inferior, and the spiritual energy, although prakriti, still, it is superior energy. That is explained. Why superior? Because the spiritual energy, prakriti, can control over the material energy. There is some tint of purna activities, but actually, living entity is not purna. He's prakriti. So as the material energy, bhümir äpaù analo väyuù, is controlled by the supreme controller, krishna, similarly, we are also controlled by the supreme controller, Krishna. And because Krishna is controller both of the material energy and the spiritual energy, He's called the supreme controller. Éçvaraù paramaù Krishnaù sac-cid-änanda-vigrahaù [Bs. 5.1]. In another place Krishna says, so far the material energy is concerned, He says, mayädhyakñeëa prakritiù süyate sa-caräcaram [Bg. 9.10]. Mayädhyakñeëa: "Under My superintendence, this material energy is working."
In another place, in the Brahma-samhita, it is said, srishti-sthiti-pralaya-sädhana-saktir ekä chäyeva yasya bhuvanäni bibharti durgä [Bs. 5.44]. Durgä-sakti, or external energy, Durgä,... Durgä means the superintendent of the fort. Durgä. Durgä means fort, where you cannot get out or cannot enter very easily. That is called durgä. Dur-gamana. So Durgä means the superintendent deity of this material world. So she is very powerful, Durgä. How much powerful? Srishti-sthiti-pralaya-sädhana-saktiù. She can create, she can maintain, and she can destroy the whole material energy, whole material cosmic manifestation. She's so powerful. Srishti-sthiti-pralaya-sädhana-saktir ekä chäyeva [Bs. 5.44]. Still, she is working not independently. Chäyeva. Just like chäya, or reflection, or shadow. Not independently. The material scientists who think that the material energy is working independently, they are mistaken. Material energy cannot work independently. We have got experience. However gorgeous a machine may be, unless there is touch of the spirit soul, the machine cannot work.
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Similarly, the big machine, cosmic manifestation, everything is going on very nicely, but it is being worked out by the plan of Krishna. That is stated by Krishna Himself, mayädhyakñeëa prakritiù süyate sa-caräcaram [Bg. 9.10], and similarly it is confirmed by Brahmä, srishti-sthiti-pralaya-sädhana-saktir ekä chäyeva yasya bhuvanäni bibharti durgä [Bs. 5.44], yasya hi... Srishti-sthiti-pralaya-sädhana-saktir ekä chäyeva yasya bhuvanäni bibharti durgä, icchänurüpam api yasya ca cestate sä. Sä durgä yasya icchänurüpam api cestate. Now, not independent. As the Supreme Personality of Godhead desires, she works. Govindam ädi-purnaà tam ahaà bhajämi **.
So description of this... Krishna has proposed in the beginning of this chapter that asaàçayaà samagraà mäà yathä jïäsyasi tac chåëu: [Bg. 7.1] "Without any doubt, as you can understand Me completely, I am describing." Now, here is the description. Krishna says that the material energy and the spiritual energy, both of them are different energies of Krishna. In the Vedas also it is stated, paräsya saktir vividhaiva çrüyate.
na tasya käryaà karaëaà ca vidyate
na tat-samaç cäbhyadhikaç ca dåçyate
paräsya saktir vividhaiva çrüyate
sväbhäviké jïäna-bala-kriyä ca
[Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]
The Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has nothing to do Himself because His energies are so complete that simply by His desire, the energies work sväbhäviké, automatically. Just like the energy within a seed. You implant it, put it in, within the earth, put little water, and it fructifies. It becomes a big tree, banyan tree. The energy is so perfect. We can study by ordinary understanding. The banyan tree, one fruit, and there are thousands of seeds within one fruit. And each seed is containing another banyan tree. This is a fact. We can experience. Now, how much energy is there, a small seed. But the energy is so complete that it can produce a big banyan tree. Not only a big banyan tree, many millions of fruits, fig fruits, and each and every fruit there are millions of seeds. Just imagine paräsya saktiù, the energy of the Supreme, how perfect it is. And so perfect... Sväbhäviké jïäna-bala-kriyä ca. The energy is put there, electric energy or spiritual energy is there, and automatically it becomes perfectly done. Wherever it is... As it is required. Sväbhäviké jïäna-bala-kriyä ca. We, if we try to paint one picture of a banyan tree, it will take so much energy of us and days. Still, it is simply painting. It is not perfect. But Krishna's energy is so perfect that within the seed everything is there, and in due course of time it fructifies and comes into nice, perfect tree. This is called Krishna's energy.
So both the spiritual energy and material energy, the source is Krishna. Therefore the conclusion should be that life does not come from matter. Matter comes from life. As it is said in the Bhagavad-gita, bhinnä prakritir me añöadhä. Krishna is life, and from Him these material energies-earth, water, air, fire, ether, mind, intelligence, and false ego-has come. So the huge, gigantic material cosmic manifestation is caused by the supreme life. Not that life has come from matter.
So there are so many theories, but Krishna, the supreme life, the supreme being, is the source of everything. Therefore Krishna says, ahaà sarvasya prabhavo mattaù sarvaà pravartate [Bg. 10.8]. The, this fact is known to the devotees. Väsudevaù sarvam iti sa mahätmä sudurlabhaù [Bg. 7.19]. Krishna is the source. Absolute Truth is Krishna.
In the Vedänta-sütra the inquiry is athäto brahma jijïäsä. What is that Absolute Truth, the supreme source of everything? That supreme source is Krishna. That is explained in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam in the beginning: janmädy asya yataù anvayäd itarataç ca artheñu abhijïaù svaräö [SB 1.1.1]. Abhijïaù. Krishna is the supreme creator, and He knows everything. Anvaya-vyatirekäbhyäm, directly and indirectly, both ways. He knows everything. He says also in Bhagavad-gita, vedähaà samatétäni [Bg. 7.26]. He knows everything. Krishna, when He was asked by Arjuna that "You say that this philosophy of Bhagavad-gita was taught by You to the sun-god. How can I believe it?" the answer was that "The thing is that both of us, we were present, but you have forgotten. I have not forgotten."That is the difference between Krishna and ordinary living be... He is complete; we are not complete. We are incomplete, fragmental portion of Krishna. Therefore we must be controlled by Krishna. If we do not agree to be controlled by Krishna, then we shall be controlled by the material energy, this bhümir äpo 'nalo väyuù [Bg. 7.4]. Actually, we are spiritual energy. We should voluntarily agree to be controlled by Krishna. That is devotional service. That is devotional service. We are spiritual energy, and Krishna is the Supreme Spirit. So if we agree to be controlled by Krishna, then we are promoted to the spiritual world. If we agree. Krishna does not interfere with your little independence. Yathecchasi tathä kuru [Bg. 18.63]. Krishna say to Arjuna, "Whatever you like, you can do." That independence we have got.
So out of that independence we have come to this material world, to enjoy freely. So Krishna has given us freedom, "You can enjoy freely." And we are trying to do that. But the result is that we are becoming entangled. We are given the freedom to work in this material world. Everyone is trying to become the master of the material world. Nobody is trying to become the servant. Only we, the Vaiñëavas, we are trying to become servant. The karmés and jïänés, they do not like to become servant. They criticize us that "You Vaiñëavas, you have got slave mentality." Yes, we have got the slave menta... Caitanya Mahäprabhu has taught, gopé-bhartuù pada-kamalayor däsa-däsänudäsaù [Cc. Madhya 13.80]. That is our position. What is the use of claiming artificially, "I am master"? If I had been master, then why the fan is required? I am servant of this influence of summer season. Similarly, I shall be servant in the winter season, too much cold.
So we are always servant. Therefore Caitanya Mahäprabhu says, jévera svarüpa haya nitya-Krishna-däsa [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109]. Actual, our constitutional position is eternal servant of Krishna. Krishna is the supreme controller. This Krishna consciousness movement is meant for this purpose, that these foolish persons or rascals, müòhäù... I am not manufacturing the words "foolish" and "rascal." It is said by Krishna. Na mäà duñkåtino müòhäù prapadyante narädhamäù [Bg. 7.15]. He has spoken like that. You'll find. Duñkåtinaù, always acting sinfully, and müòhäù, and rascals, ass. Narädhamäù, lowest of the mankind. "Oh, you are...? Krishna, You are speaking so much ill of these materialist scientists? There are so many philosophers. They're all narädhamäù?" "Yes, they are narädhamäù." "But they are educated." "Yes, that is also..." But what kind of education? Mäyayä apahåta-jïänäù: "The result of their education-knowledge has been taken away by mäyä." The more one is educated, the more one is atheist.